Anuria | Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

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What is Anuria?

Signifying the name itself the word means ‘no urine.’ Uria refers to urine hence Anuria implies no urination or absence of urine. The kidneys do not produce urine in this condition, and it acts as a vital sign for kidney malfunction.

Relation of Anuria to Oliguria

In this medical condition, the urine production becomes less than 500 milliliters per day which is a remarkably low discharge of urine. Anuria is the worst and last stage of Oliguria where the urine output is as less as 100 milliliters per day or even less than that. Anuria is often related to kidney diseases, which develops from the acute stage (Oliguria) and then progresses to its advanced stage (Anuria). Anuria is worse than Oliguria as it damages the kidneys, the urine output becomes dangerously low which turns into kidney failure and if untreated cause death.

Causes of Anuria

There may be several factors underlying this medical condition:

  • Uncontrolled diabetes leading to acute kidney failure and then Anuria
  • Hypertension damages the arteries around kidneys causing disruption
  • Kidney failures
  • Prolonged kidney disorder resulting in inability to urinate
  • Kidney stones might act as an obstruction in urine discharge along with pain
  • Tumors also block the urination output as well as disrupt the kidney functions
  • Excessive blood loss, diarrhea, vomiting and loss of fluids may cause low urine outputs
  • Allergic reactions to some drugs
  • Decreased blood supply to the heart and other cardiac conditions
  • Sudden increase of pressure in the abdominal area
  • Pancreatitis may cause low urination
The human urinary system includes the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
The human urinary system illustration

Symptoms of Anuria

  • Decrease in the urine output
  • Excess loss of body fluids
  • Irritation or discomfort
  • Dizziness
  • Loss of appetite
  • Lightheadedness
  • Rapid pulse
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Abnormal urination for 1-2 days

Risk factors

Anuria can affect anyone, but some may be more exposed to the risks. It may include people:

  • Suffering from kidney disorders or urinary tract infection
  • With enlarged prostate glands
  • Who have recently undergone any renal surgery

Complications

It is to be noted that if Anuria is left untreated, then the underlying disease behind its cause is also not treated. It might eventually lead to life risk and several dangerous complications. Some of these complications turn up when:

  • Kidney damage that can turn fatal
  • Kidney failure resulting in death
  • Acute Cardiovascular problems
  • Severe dehydration due to excessive fluid loss
  • Hematological issues like anemia
  • Gastrointestinal issues
  • Hyperkalemia
  • ECG abnormalities
  • Cardiac arrhythmias

Diagnosis

The doctor while detecting may ask about the nature of urinating issues, the presence of blood in urine or fatigue in the patient. On inspection, the doctor must have a closer look at the kidney function by performing the following tests –

  • Urine culture
  • CT scan of the abdomen
  • MRI scan of the kidneys
  • Renal Scintigraphy
  • Biopsy of a small sample

Treatment of Anuria for adults

Doctors initially analyze the medical history, span and nature of the disorder prior to any treatment for Anuria. The exact condition underlying the decrease in urine output should be detected for proper treatment. Some common treatments include:

  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for increasing the urine output
  • Discontinuation of drugs and nephrotoxic medications until normal urination
  • Antibiotics for urinary tract infection
  • Immediate stoppage of Potassium containing medicines
  • In extreme cases, surgery for removal of the part disrupting normal flow of urine
  • For those unfit for surgery, internal drainage method
  • Nephrostomy
  • Balancing of fluid input and output
  • Retaining the electrolytic balance in the body
  • Dialysis in case of kidney disorders
  • Urethral stents for collecting urine
  • In ultimate instances, a Kidney transplant
  • Removal of kidney stones, or any tumors if any
  • Surgery, chemotherapy or radiation for tumor removal

Treatment for Anuria in children

Children are more prone to Anuria due to diarrhea and other dehydration issues. Some common treatments are:

  • Hydration
  • In case of fluid overload, diuretics therapy is done
  • Urinary catheterization in case of any postrenal obstruction or stenosis

Home remedies for Anuria

In case there is no severe condition, underlying Anuria then some remedies may be adopted for the easiest and quickest way to cure the disorder:

  • Consumption of more amounts of water and liquids
  • Reduction of salt intake
  • Lowering of potassium intake
  • Eat smaller amounts of protein

Alternative ways to get rid of Anuria

Patients may also take homeopathy medicines but again, it depends on the degree of the condition and symptoms. The signs and symptoms gradually get removed. Homeopathy aims at not only in the treating the Anuria symptoms, but also to find out and address the underlying condition. It helps to cure through individualized remedy and treatment procedures. Following medicines may be helpful:

  • Aconite
  • Apocynum
  • Arsenic Album
  • Apis Mel
  • Belladonna
  • Bryonia
  • Cantharis
  • Camphor
  • Colchicum
  • Lycopodium, Digitalis
  • Kali Bi
  • Merc Cor
  • Opium
  • Stramonium
  • Petroleum
  • Nitric Acid

Outlook for Anuria

The outlook for Anuria is mainly dependent on the following factors:

  • Actual cause
  • Early detection
  • Easy treatment of the underlying conditions
  • Complications in the kidneys

When to see the doctor?

As Anuria relates to several other causes, self diagnosis is a bit difficult. One tends to ignore this condition and tries to solve it through home remedies and self prescribed medicines or treatments. But one must get in touch with a doctor if any changes get noticed in the urine output. Some cases are:

  • Even after increased water intakes no improvement is found in the urination
  • If oliguria is the underlying condition, the doctor should be informed
  • In case of diarrhea if vomiting or a feeling of nausea, lightheadedness, fever, dizziness or fat pulse is observed
Summary
Anuria | Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment
Article Name
Anuria | Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment
Description
Signifying the name itself the word means ‘no urine.' Uria refers to urine hence Anuria implies no urination or absence of urine. The kidneys do not produce urine in this condition, and it acts as a vital sign for kidney malfunction.
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Prime Health Channel
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